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LABORATORY OF MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY
1983 Annual Report
Table of Contents
Competence Development and Genetic Exchange
Mechanisms Among Streptococci --Ranhand
Studies of Viral Antigens in Virus-Induced
Biological and Biochemical Characterization of
Basic Studies of Mycoplasmas--Tul ly
The Molecular Genetics of Eukaryotic Cells and
Biochemical and Chemical Studies on Retroviral
Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Streptococci
and Anaerobic Bacteria (Revised Title)--LeBlanc
Structure and Function of the Oncogene Products
of Polyomavirus — Ito
Characterization of Endogenous Ecotropic and
Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Viruses--Theodore
Molecular Biology and Biochemical Structure
of Endogenous Provi ruses of Mice--Khan
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LABORATORY OF MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY, NIAID
October 1, 1982 - September 30, 1983
Dr. Malcolm A. Martin
Chief, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology
The Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology (LMM) applies molecular biological
techniques to study the structure and regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic
genes. Our research goals are to answer fundamental questions in microbiology
by examining host cells and associated microorganisms at the molecular level.
While a great deal of effort is directed to animal virus systems, bacterial and
mycoplasma organisms are also investigated. Relying heavily on such biochemical
techniques as nucleic acid hybridization, restriction enzyme mapping, DMA
cloning, and nucleotide sequencing procedures, LMM staff members have produc-
tively investigated a variety of genes involved in the interaction of a particu-
lar microorganism Buy Ddavp and its host cell. In many cases, newer technologies have
been combined with more conventional assay systems, particularly following the
construction of novel and potentially active DNA recombinants.
During the past year, considerable progress has been made in several different
areas. Many members of the Biochemical Virology Section have had a long-
standing interest in retroviruses. The focus of these investigations has been
the detailed analysis of endogenous proviral DNA found in mice and man.
Although retrovirus particles contain an RNA genome, a DNA copy of the viral RNA
is synthesized following virus infection, becomes integrated into the host-cell
chromosome, and is the template from which messenger and genomic RNA is copied.
The genome of normal vertebrate cells contains multiple copies of retrovirus DNA
which are vertically transmitted. In the mouse and avian systems, some of these
copies of retroviral DNA (so-called "proviruses") are expressed as competent,
infectious virus particles. Most of these "endogenous" copies of retroviral
DNA, however, do not give rise to infectious virions since they contain multiple
deletions and rearrangements. The status and function of the more than
50 copies of proviral DNA in normal or diseased cells Buy Ddavp Online are presently not under-
stood. It is our goal, using molecular biological techniques, to begin unravel-
ing the function of this multi-copy family of genes. Our studies in this area
were initiated about four years ago as a result of collaborative arrangements
made with Dr. Wallace Rowe and his colleagues in the Laboratory of Viral
Diseases (LVD, NIAID). During this period, considerable progress was made in
the biochemical characterization of the different classes of endogenous murine
leukemia virus (MuLV) sequences present in the mouse genome. The success of
these experiments was in a large part due to Dr. Rowe's interest and leadership,
particularly during the early phases of these studies. His important contribu-
tions to our research program in this area will be sorely Generic Ddavp missed.
One model of retrovirus- induced leukemogenesis involves the generation of dual-
tropic MuLVs following recombination between spontaneously induced ecotropic
MuLVs and endogenous proviral DNA segments present in mouse chromosomal DNA.
Subsequent to the recombination event, the dual -tropic MuLVs may gain entry into
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